The cashmere industry is a lucrative one based on the production of cashmere wool. Cashmere wool is an expensive fiber obtained from domesticated goats.
Its soft, fine texture makes the highly sort after product attract huge patronage. The Cashmere goat produces two coated fleece the guard and down hair.
There are a few goat species regarded as fiber producers such as the Nigora goat, Angora goat, Cashmere goat and Pygora goat.
Cashmere wool is determined by the length, crimping and diameter. Selective breeding, and good nutrition are factors that influence better quality of cashmere fiber.
Regardless of the length of the hair the coarse guard hair should maintain the same color consistency and shear-ability. Cashmere goats produce significant amount of guard hair in relations to down hair.
Features of the fiber include excellent insulation, low luster, soft, fine, light or strong texture. Determinants of acceptable cashmere are the dimensions of the fiber not exceeding certain diameters and microns. The specification is 1-1/4' long with diameter less 10 microns.
Types of Cashmere Fiber Producing Goats
We have established that the Cashmere goat is not the only producer of cashmere fiber. A few goats in this category are hexi cashmere, Australian cashmere, Pashmina goats, and Tibetan plateau.
Others include zhongwei goat, inner Mongolian goat and Alashanzuoqi white. The goats are characterized by their location, selective breeding, country of origin and habitat.
Types of Fiber
The types of fiber obtained from Cashmere goat are raw, processed, virgin or recycled hair. Virgin fiber is ideal for yarn then made into fabrics.
Unprocessed fiber is regarded as raw while processed fiber has undergone de-hair, wash, carding and weaving. Reclaimed fibers from fabric are acknowledged as recycled fibers.
How to Start a Cashmere goat Farm
Select the goat
Goats are farmed for milk, meat, coat or skin. Raising goats is highly profitable however you need to select the right breed.
Goats are herd animal and thrive in numbers. Select the breed that is native to your country and regarded as cashmere goats.
The goat you buy should be certified fit and healthy. Physical inspection or the services of a qualified veterinarian will be of tremendous assistance.
Make sure you purchase cashmere goats if you are interested in wool production. You need to purchase several Does and a single Buck for your breeding program.
Determine the age of the animal and choose according to your business goals and requirements. The price of goats varies according to the age young Kid, doe, and buck.
Before purchasing the animal you need to consider costs of feeding, labor and housing.
Prepare an Enclosure
You need to prepare an enclosure by providing a fence. The peripheral enclosure could be built with wire to prevent escape and wandering.
Build a clean, dry shelter such as a shed or barn for the goats. Create separate housing for bucks, Does and fencing about 6 feet.
Feeding Cashmere goats
Goats are curious animals and will take a bite out off anything. This annoying trend could lead to disaster if any poisonous plant is eaten.
Therefore make sure the pasture is free from harmful shrubs and substances. One square bale of hat per head weekly is sufficient. They need clean water, grains and supplements.
Get licensing and Permits
Find out the local government regulations regarding goat rearing. Commercial goat farming follows strict guidelines and regulations as regards, fencing and trading.
You need a trade license and membership in goat breeders association. There are also environmental and health laws guiding the enterprise.Crocodile Farming
Before you start your Cashmere goat farm you need to write a business plan. Then carry out a feasibility study for the best location for your farm.
Study what other breeding programs are doing and learn some of their tricks. Carefully consider the breed of goat before purchasing the animal.
Make sure you buy healthy goats from reputable breeders. Get the appropriate licensing and register your enterprise. Build stronger sustainable enclosures for your stock and provide good nutritious feed.
Build a parameter fence to void escape of animal. Invest in basic equipment to carry out the de-hairing and shearing.
Join Cashmere goat association for more information and guidance. Finally identify markets to sell your products depending on your business goals and structure. <
Emu’s are large flightless domesticated birds raised for meat and oil production. The birds reach tremendous speed in full flight and love to forage.
Emu’s are found in Australia and they are the second largest birds after the ostrich. They stand about 180cm height and 162 cm length.
Emus weigh an astounding 55kg with female topping the scale. They have long necks, vestigial wings and three toes on each foot.
The shaggy looking bird’s distinctive feature is the double rachis on a single shaft. The Savannah dwelling birds are tough, rigged and adapt to different climates.
Emu farming is capital, labor intensive and the birds succumb to certain diseases. To start your emu business you need adequate funding, proper nutrition, good bird source and an effective breeding program.
Other considerations are incorporation, permits, veterinary services and marketing the produce.
Land and Infrastructure
Emus have a deadly weapon in their feet. The legs are strong, powerful and enough to brake bones. To farm emu you need a vast land to accommodate them.
Without ample space to move around they will not grow nicely. If you have about 8000sq feet you can continently rear 10 birds.
Work on the infrastructure especially the perimeter fencing and a shed. Provide adequate water, emu feed, incubators for egg hatchery and clean shelter.
Feeding the Bird
The emu diet consists of grasses, insects, arthropods, beetles and millipede. Others feeding habit involves seeds, roots and leaf.
Emu farmers should buy manufactured emu feed that has all the nutritional requirements for rapid growth. It is bad practice to feed the bird, chicken concentrate because the nutritional requirements are different.
Funding the Enterprise
Entrepreneurs need adequate funding to start the enterprise. The funds are used to purchase land and provide infrastructure.
Some costs considerations are tied to buying the stock, feeding and veterinary services. Others are cost of labor, marketing, and price of incubator.
Approach an agriculture focused bank for loans. You can find a core investor or borrow from family and friends.
Register the Business
First incorporate your company and choose a business name. You need a trade license and insurance cover for your stock. Find out the permits and regulations guiding the enterprise.
Start a Breeding Program
The female emu’s plumage darkens slightly during breeding season. They pair up and perform a distinctive mating dance. The female lay between 4to14 green colored eggs.
The incubation period in nature is about 2 months and the male is in charge of the eggs. Chicks grow rapidly attaining maturity in 6 months. Emu grow nicely in captivity based on good nutritional diet.
Emu are farmed for their meat, leather, eggs, skin and oil. The oil is used for cosmetics, therapeutic products and supplements.
Without proper marketing you will struggle to make profit. You can approach cosmetic companies, exotic restaurants, and hotels.
Advertise your product in newspapers, magazines and other print media. Use flyer, handbills, billboards and signage to advertise your products.
You can trade birds, process the meat or open a small side company. To rise additional funds organize tours of your facility.
Another related venture is to organize seminars on emu farming and provide theory and practical training. Sell to market women, frozen stores, supermarkets and grocery stores.
Build a Website
Build a website to reach a wider customer base. The website should be targeted to your local market and community.
Advertise your business on free or paid classified websites. Use yellow pages including other social media to improve patronage.How to Start an Ewe Sheep Farm
|Per Meistrup [CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons|
Crocodiles have narrow long heads, protruding teeth and a mean temperament. Crocodiles are carnivorous feeding on anything that wanders into their domain. They are tropical dwellers found in Australia, Asia, America and Africa.
Different Species of Crocodile
It is important to note the different species of crocodile. There a 14 species alive today based on genetic study. Here are a list of crocodiles found in the wild
1. Fresh water crocodile
2. Slender-snout crocodile
3. Orinoco crocodile
4. American crocodile
5. New Guinea crocodile
6. Nile crocodile
7. Morelet’s crocodile
8. Cuban crocodile
9. Saltwater crocodile
10. Mugger crocodile
11. Dwarf crocodile
12. West African crocodile
13. Siamese crocodile
14. Philippines crocodile
How to Start a Crocodile Farm
Although crocodile farming is very lucrative it is also capital intensive. Crocodiles are meat eaters and require nourishment to thrive and grow.
The business is very tough and challenging especially on the onset of the enterprise. There are very strict legislation's guiding the practice in many countries.
Some countries don’t even have crocodile farms so establishing one would be difficult. You will need to get government and local government permits and certification.
Other difficulties include sourcing adequate funds, securing the animal in a safe environment and labor costs. The woes just get better because you need to build an artificial pool and purchase expansive land.
Once you have obtained the necessary documentation the next step is capital. It is important to find a viable source to stock your farm.
You need professional handlers and consultants for best practices. All these precautions are because crocodile are deadly man eating creatures. They are very fast, agile, perfect ambush predators with a multitude of sharp teeth.
Understand the Business
You need lots of practical experience to understand crocodile handling. Visit existing farms in your area to study their methodology.
Try hiring a profession or become a volunteer apprentice. You can update your knowledge through books and online resources however there is no substitute for practical experience.
Locating the Crocodile Farm
You need to purchase property within a large area that has a mash or lake. Crocodiles require a substantial amount of space to thrive.
Maintain a safe enclosure by cordoning the crocodile farm to avoid escape. Fewer crocodiles can be kept in smaller enclosure protected by reinforces cages.
It is important to create an aesthetically pleasing environment to look natural as possible while providing full safety. Make sure there is a good road network to your crocodile farm.
How to Source Crocodile
Crocodiles are regarded as endangered species so the practice is regulated. Farms can source crocodiles from the wild through harvesting.
Other methods include ranching and the more popular method captive breeding. Captive breeding includes incubation and hatching young crocodiles.
The farm owner needs to have some breeding crocodiles on his farm. If the entrepreneur is close to their natural habitat he could source the eggs from the wild. This is a very dangerous technique and should be done only by experienced wranglers.
Raising Crocodile in Captivity
There are two basic methods farmers use to raise crocodile in captivity. Farmers that rear and add to wild population use the ‘open method’.
Most farmers are in the business to make money so they prefer the closed cycle method. The close cycle method involves collecting fertile crocodile eggs on the farm and incubating.
The young juveniles are then grown into adulthood. You need storage space, incubators and grow out cages for the juveniles.
The structure of the cage depends on the building material available. Did you know certain conditions predetermine the sex of a crocodile?
Crocodiles are egg layers like other reptiles. The eggs are laid in nests and covered with sand and vegetation.
Mating occur in the water and egg-laying at night. The species determines the number of eggs laid in the whole.
Crocodile are known to lay up about 15 to 60 eggs in one batch. The temperature determines the sex of the crocodile 30C for female and 33C male. The young crocodile juvenile breaks through the hard egg shell aided by the mother.
The most valuable part of the crocodile is the hide. Crocodile leather attracts premium price and is used to make various items.
You find crocodile leather bags, shoes, belts and hats. There are crocodile briefcases, duffle bags, purses and sandals.
Some restaurants around the world serve crocodile meat. A farmer could generate additional income through guided tours on the farm.
Crocodiles live surprisingly long lives sometimes reaching 65 years. Captive crocodiles live even longer because of better feeding and less stress.
Crocodiles are ambush predators that prefer live meat. The animals feed on crustaceans, mammals, reptiles, birds, amphibians and mollusks.
In the wild their favorite prey are deer, hog, buffalo's and gazelles. The crocodile farmer needs to supply different verity of meat.
Many farmers feed their stock chicken, turkey or rodents. Big crocodiles can manage being fed twice a week. While younger juvenile crocodiles should be fed three times a week.
Before starting the venture write a comprehensive crocodile farming business plan. Then carry out a feasibility study and secure funding.
Apply for bank loans that have long tenure with fixed interest rates. You need appropriate insurance and government permit before starting the venture.
Other considerations are land, building structure and sourcing the crocodiles. You will spend an insane amount of money feeding them. Finally it takes about 4 to 6 years for crocodiles to reach fully mature.Alpaca Farming Business
Animal husbandry is the raising of domestic animals for their produce. Different animals are farmed for their eggs, milk, meat and wool.
Sheep breeding is a major aspect of animal husbandry. The four major animal farming around the world are cattle, sheep, chicken and fish farming.
The top countries that farm sheep are listed according to the number of herds the keep. The top five are China, Australia, India, Iran and Sudan.
China and Australia account for over 250 million heads of sheep while India and Sudan 120 million. Entrepreneurs interested in going into sheep farming should decide on the product they want to sell.
There are different breeds of sheep specialized in wool, meat or milk production. Purchasing the right breed that grows best in your climate is very important.
Sheep generally range in temperate climates and are fed using different techniques. Free rage or shedding is the two ways sheep are kept.
Sheep’s are natural grazers and store some of their food to eat leisurely. Providing adequate pasture, hay and feed supplements is important to the growth of your stock.
Other considerations before starting a sheep farm are funding, fixed and working capital. The major revenue from sheep farming is shearing sheep for wool. Wool is a priced commodity in the local and international market.
How to Star a Ewe Sheep Farm
The domesticated sheep found in farms have gone through years of selective breeding. This is to facilitate higher yields of wool, meat, milk and color variations.
Although you find different color variations white wool is the standard. Sheep farmers looking to produce wool should purchase white sheep that have no blemish.
There are over 200 types of sheep primarily categorized by the color of their wool. They are further classified according to their produce such as meat sheep, milk sheep, wool sheep and hair sheep.
Location the Sheep Farm
You need several acres of farm land to successfully grow sheep. Although you can grow them in closed environments some farmers prefer ranging.
Secure your property with good fencing and build dwelling quarters. Construct shearing sheds and barns for your sheep.
Make sure your location is accessible by vehicular transportation. A major advantage of sheep farming is that they don’t need intensive farming to grow.
Sheep farming is capital intensive and time consuming. Funds are needed for leasing or purchasing property and building structures on the farm land.
You need to purchase ewe sheep to start a breeding program. Ewe sheep is the fertile fully grown female sheep farmers use for breeding.
To secure funding visit a commercial bank in your area and apply for loan. To get the loan you need a business plan, some personal fund and collateral.
Register the Sheep Farm
Like most businesses you need to incorporate the enterprise. Register the sheep farm as a limited liability company and get a business name.
You also need a trade license to sell your wool to potential customers. It is common sense to insure your business and fill your tax returns. Farmers have many unions and associations join sheep breeders association in your country.
The good news is that sheep are herbivores so they eat grass. Sheep have a complex digestive system and can manage grass, hay, and roughage.
Other foods they love are knapweed, kudzu, cheat grass, sagebrush and leafy spurge. Although they also feed on legumes, forbs avoid toxic plants like yew, acorns, oaks and potatoes.
If you want to apply the grazing technique rotate them from each pasture. Sheep graze on lower grass decimating a field in no time.
It is important to purchase sheep feed to substitute the grazing activity. During breeding season the ewe is flushed with improved grain ration for better results.
Sourcing the Ewe Sheep
Purchase your stock from reputable breeders in your locality. Other sources are research and husbandry institutions or visit any major farming association for Intel.
Make sure the ewe and bull you purchase has relevant documentation and proof of fertility. To reproduce you need a single ram and a few ewes.
Ewes reach sexual maturity in eight month and are seasonal breeders. The estrus cycle of a ewe is usually every 17 days with gestation period of 5 months.
Proper grooming is needed including veterinary care and assistance. Sheep as prone to many diseases and injuries therefore proper care and monitoring is essential.
Regular vaccination is very important to the development and health of your stock. Other things to watch out for are predators and poisonous plants.
Equipment on Sheep Farm
You need basic equipment to run your sheep farmer. Some equipment’s are buckets, troughs, closeouts, collars, halters, leads including trimming stand and vaccination. Others are bells, collars, hay feeder, clippers, stanchions, heaters and milking stands.
Sheep farmers need to find other sources of income in addition to sheep wool. Farmers sell sheep meat, sheep skin and tallow.
Sheep skin is a very valuable product used in many industries. The skin is used to produce clothing’s, bags, carpets and footwear.
Other products obtained from sheep are cosmetics, pulp material for paper, and sausage casting.
How to start a Small Meat Processing Business
How to start a Small Meat Processing Business
The fibers are soft, durable and water resistant. Farming the animal is relatively stress- free except certain health, medical or food challenges.
To grow Alpaca you need a large expanse of land, fence and breeding stock. It is advisable to learn all you can about the exotic animal before venturing into the business.
Learn about the animal’s reproductive cycle, birth rate, feeding habits and growth rate. If the focus of your enterprise is to harvest fiber you need to patiently buildup your stock.
A moderate sized farm could have 100 alpaca residents for wool production. The business is highly regulated by governments and there are strict laws guiding importation. Major countries that farm alpaca are Bolivia, Peru, Chile and Ecuador.
Why start an Alpaca farm
Alpaca farming is very lucrative based on the different products made from the fiber. The business is done as a hobby, large or small scale.
You can start the business with a few animals and gradually scale up the enterprise. To start the business you need to acquire knowledge about the animal.
Other things to consider are finance, location, physical structures, medication and purchasing parent stock.
Alpaca products are durable and long lasting. They are usually high quality items woven into various fashion items, clothing or home products.
The fiber is soft, has a natural luster and comes in a wide range of colors. The fabric has great absorbent quality, and non inflammable. Other features are elasticity, strength and durability.
The large collection of quality products includes footwear, handbags, totes purses, hats and hand bags. More items made from alpaca fiber are jackets, mittens, gloves, sweaters, scarves, shawls and toys.
Apart from building a barn or parameter fencing you need a few equipment's to run your farm. You might need alpaca halters, head collars, lope ropes, birthing kit. Others are colostrums, foot care, first aid kit, and shears.
Things to look out for before buying your alpaca are fertility, ability to lactate and easy birth. Focus on the breeder of choice program and methodology.
Request a certificate of mating and pregnancy confirmation. Others are husbandry records, history of sire and the temperament of the animal.
Find out if the breeder has a comprehensive after sales service. Make sure the animal passes a veterinary inspection test.
Once you have acquired the alpaca the breeder should provide a alpaca pedigree certificate to the new owner.
The major challenge is the few herds available for sale. The relatively slow growth rate adversely affects the number of domesticated Alpaca in farms.
Compounding the problem is low reproduction and long pregnancy of one year. A female alpaca manages only one young a year. This further reducing the stocking rate and amount of female you can buy.
There are strict laws guiding importation of foreign stock based on preserving the local wildlife from diseases.
Setting an Alpaca farm
You need to lease a property or purchase farm land. If you have adequate funding it is better to purchase the land.
You then need to build holding pens, shelters and barns. You can create an open field and build perimeter fencing.
Funding is needed to service fixed assets such as landed property, fencing and shelter. Other cost considerations are labor costs, purchasing the animal and equipment.
Some equipment’s you need are clippers, shears and halters. Secure bank loans and get insurance cover on animals. You also need a trade license, company registration and tax.
You can start with two animals and slowly develop your stock. The total investment should cover veterinary services, barn, fencing, feed and equipment.
Fiber producers usually carry out the carding, spinning and weaving. This is not a hard and fast rule because the farmer can subcontract the spinning to another outfit.
Alpaca products attract high demand and patronage. You can sell your fabric to designers, cloth stores or textile firms.
Build a Website
You can reach more customers by building a website and display goods and services. Offer visitors many choices, moderate prices and a shopping cart. Try free classified websites to sell your products.
The origins of French Angora rabbit could be traced back to mid 18th century. The bundle of wool was believed to have originated from Turkish sailors in 1723. Famous for their long wool the domesticated rabbit has been farmed for hundreds of years.
There are basically eight breeds of Angora however only four are recognized. We have the Giant Angora rabbit, Satin Angora, English Angora and French Angora rabbit.
Others are Korean, Finnish, St Lucian, German Angora and Chinese breeds. The rabbit’s major characteristics are the long down coat and large size. The fiber is totally distinct from mohair obtained from Angora goats or cashmere.
The Halo-fullness of the silky textured fiber produces light premium wool. The premium wool costs about $15 per ounce and comes in white, black brown or grey.
Breeders remove the long wool through combing, plucking or shearing. In humid temperatures the wool felt easily yet retains the most fullness and warmth than many fibers.
French Angora rabbit
French angora rabbits differ in placement of wool and are large cuddly mammals. They are the second largest breed after the giant angora.
Weighing between 8 to 10 pounds the French angora’s origin is closer in ancestor to the original Angora rabbit. They are easily recognized by the high quality guard hairs and small tufts on the tip of its ears.
The straight long hair feels coarse to touch and easier to groom. The higher percentage of guard hair makes it easier to groom and spin yarn.
Another distinct feature that characterizes the rabbit is two coats of guard hair and wool. The lifespan of French Angora rabbits is 6-10 years in ideal conditions.
Angora rabbits suffer from wool block a serious condition that causes clogging of the digestive tracts. The rabbit has a habit of ingesting the wool which gets logged.
The French Angora rabbit is commercially farmed in many countries. The oval shaped rabbit is bred for meat and wool.
The major breeder is China and there are over 300,000 angora rabbits farmed around the world. The wool is highly priced and attracts premium price per ounce.
However in recent years there are major concerns pertaining to the harvesting methodology of some commercial farmers.
The four major breeds as classified by the angora breed association as English, French, giant and satin. The beautiful satin breed was derived through cross breeding.
Satin angora is a mix between the French angora and satin. The rabbit is characterized by its semi-transparent high quality sheen wool that reflects light.
It is easy to groom and lacks feet, face and ear furnishing similar to its French ancestors. The wool has a good luster, silky texture and stronger that other breeds. ARBA approved varieties are self, pointed white, wide and agouti and they generally weigh about 4kg.
The largest among the rabbit is the giant angora. Weighing at an impressive 6kg it has huge commercial value.
The giants coat consists of 3 types of wool the awn hair, awn fluff and under-wool. Giant Angora rabbit has furnishing on ears and face and resembles the German angora.
The 6-class animal is commercially viable because the wool grows 9cm in 3 months. The giant is prolific at producing wool that is harvested every 90 days. The wavy wool has a gentle shin, strong and soft to touch.
French Angora Temperament and Maintenance
Most angora rabbits display a gentle temperament. French breed are mellow, easy to handle however require regular grooming.
To maintain the rabbit you need to clip the wool at least thrice yearly. Clip toenails two times a month and apply regular brushing to prevent clumps.
Farmers use blowers to clean the hair strands and maintain a nice shin. Other care involves fiber rich diet and proper monitoring to prevent wool block.
Major health concerns involves wool block, lack of urination, poor feeding and lethargy. Regular check by a veterinary doctor is essential to the well-being of the animal.
French Angora rabbit Care
French Angora rabbit care involves raising the rabbits, feeding and health requirements. Others are breeding the rabbit and the type of feed needed for rapid growth.
You can grow angora indoors or outside in cages or pens. Buy ready made cages or build your own and makes sure the cages are durable, easy to clean.
Rabbit feces are full of harmful bacteria including a strong ammonia stench. Therefore proper cage and maintenance is imperative.
Build the cage with wire mesh and Keep them separate in each cage. Out door cages should have a good roof and the cage elevated from the ground. This is done to prevent predators and insects attacking your rodent. To prevent stained or matted wool keep the cage clean.
Feed the mammal rabbit pellets rich in protein and timothy hay. Make sure you provide adequate water including papaya, carrots, bananas and broccoli. They need at least 13 percent fiber in their diet.
Grooming equipment include scissors, wire brushes and combs. Remove loose hair and brush once every three days.
You also need blowers, clippers and brushes. Harvesting is done every 90 days depending on the type of rabbit you farm.
Harvesting is done through pulling, trimming to remove fibers. Expert groomers take about an hour to remove the wool from each rabbit.
There are international standards and laws guiding grooming practices. Wool block is a serious problem that clogs the digestive system in angora rabbits.
Signs of ingestion are loss of appetite and rapid weight loss. Early detection and prevention are the best ways to deal with wool block. The highest grade wool is plucked from the upper sides and back of the rabbit.
Setting the rabbit Farm
To setup the farm register the business name and incorporate the business. Secure bank loans and a trade license. Follow health and environmental provisions guiding the business. You can lease or purchase suitable farmland and build cages. Find a good source for your rabbits and stock rabbit feed.
Other things to consider are working tools, high labor cost. Before embarking on the project write a business plan and carryout a feasibility study.
Study fast changing international prices and competitors. You need to develop a good marketing strategy to reach potential customers.
Meat processing, storage and distribution are highly regulated by governments. The business is carried out small scale and large scale.
Processing plants needs to pass strict hygiene and environmental inspection and certification. The main advantage of processed meat is increased shelf life through packaging, preservation and heat treatment.
To start your meat processing business every aspect of the process is important. You need to understand the basics, hire a consultant and follow fast changing trends.
The type of equipment depends on your funding and business template. Equipment's used in meat processing companies are manual, semi-automated and fully automated machinery.
Process Meat Products
Processed meat products are salted and ingredients are added to improve taste. They are processed raw, cooked, filled in casting.
Some meat products are raw, cooked or cured. Therefore meat is processed raw, canned, dried, fermented, precooked and cured.
There are many products meat processing companies make. The production process is slightly different depending on the product.
Processed meat goes through cutting, grinding, stuffing and packaging. Meat products include sausages, hotdogs, ham, and canned beef.
The different meat products depend on the processing technology and methodology used to achieve a finished product. Meat goes through curing, cooking, pre-cooking fermentation and drying.
Freshly processed meat products are made into hamburgers, sausage and nuggets. Cured meat pieces are made into raw ham, raw cured beef.
Precooked products include mortadella, lyoner and meat loaf. Raw fermented sausage produce salami while dried meat is made into beef jerky and meat floss.
A List of Processed Meat Products
There are different meat products based on the method used in processing the product. Here are a list of meat products based on the technology and function.
Dried Meat Products
Dried meat goes through dehydration, lean meat are stripped of fat cut and dried. Some dried meats are biltong, and meat floss.
Raw Fermented Meat and Precooked Meat
A list of raw fermented meat is raw fermented sausage, and Naem. Precooked meat products are liver pate, corned beef, and blood sausage.
Raw meat includes hotdogs, sausage, and meat loaf while cured meats are cured raw ham, and other cured meat products.
Packaging of Meat Products
The main purpose of packaging meat is to avoid contaminants such as dirt, micro-organisms, and toxic substances. Packaging enhances the products taste, aroma and preservation.
Other methods used to increase shelf life are heat treatment, sterilization processes and refrigeration. Common packaging material is synthetic polythene and canning.
The synthetic material should have an outer and inner layer. This is needed to create a good barrier against oxygen and evaporation.
The synthetic material you choose should be low cost, easily sealed, a good barrier and oil resistant. Other properties include flexibility, light weight, odorless, resistant to different temperatures including mechanical strength.
More packaging material self serve tray, single layer film, and multi-layer film. Others are vacuum bags, molded bottom film vacuum packs, modified atmosphere packaging and skin packaging.
Modified atmosphere packaging
Single layer film
Equipment used to Process Meat
The meat processing company is at liberty to purchase large or small machinery. The production, packaging and output depend on the type of machinery and capacity.
Some basic machinery used in meat processing plants is sausage linker, meat grinder, electric or hydraulic sausage stuffer. More equipment’s are meat mixer, automatic rapid patty maker, vacuum sealer, hydrator, easy slider and dehydrator.
List of Equipment
Electric meat grinder
A Simple Production Facility
The cleanliness of the meat production facility is mandatory. A very high level of personal hygiene and safety equipment is important.
The range of products determines the type of equipment installed in your facility. Majority of the equipment are either manually operated or powered by electricity.
The production facility should have a processing table, shelf and kitchen equipment. You need weight equipment, provide proper drainage system. Install the equipment you need and have cleaning disinfectants.
Marketing the Meat Product
Your product needs to pass the national food and drug certification including environmental protection and sanitation laws.
Employ branding and register your business enterprise. Use advertisements in print and electronic media to reach customers.
Produce high quality products and employ sales agents. Offer discounts, bulk purchase orders and coupons.
Buy the proper machinery and secure trade license, funding and local government permits. Other things needed are ideal location and good packaging materials.
Sell your products to supermarkets, grocery stores and malls. Discus with other meat shops in your area for supply deals.
You need a good marketing strategy to sell your products. You need to keep abreast of fluctuating prices and market trends. Chicken Farming Business
Meat Processing Business Plan: How to Write a Meat Processing Business Plan
There are a large number of meat farms in comparison to meat processing companies. The large disparity is due to serious regulatory laws governing meat processing business.
Meat processing is market driven, capital intensive and goes through regular inspection. Small business owners need to write a meat processing business plan before launching their enterprise.
The plan should include type of product and service. Others are marketing plan, growth potential, storage, distribution and permits.
Things to consider are plant size, equipment, company structure and estimated costs. Develop a financial plan to cover property, equipment, livestock and labor costs.
Your processing plant should pass regulatory permits guiding meat processing. The meats of choice are livestock animals such as cattle, goat, and chicken.
The plant core function is manufacture of processed meat such as beef, pork, and lamb. The plant design should accommodate equipment and meat processing.
The work schedule involves packaging, cooking, cutting, and trimming. Other functions are curing, grinding and filling.
The choice of factory location should be assessable by vehicular transportation. Facilities in the plan include water treatment unit, electricity, water and large septic system.
Factor total cost of meat processing including, working and fixed capital. Predict three year financial model based on revenue, net income, sales and equity.
Secure funding through bank loans and properly manage expenses. Important considerations are quality of product, health safety issues, and customer’s preferences.
The target markets are wholesalers and retailers in your community. Meat processing plants also sell to distributors and private individuals.
Marketing involves printing of flyers, posters, banners and signboards. You can take out advertisement in local newspapers and magazines.
You need proper packaging, branding and labels. Develop a marketing strategy and a marketing budget.
Product and Services
The products manufacture in your factory depends on your business focus. Meat processing plants produce pork sausage, pork bacon and beef jerky.
Other products are chicken nuggets, pork ham, beef snacks. The manufacturing process involves cutting, curing, grinding and packaging.
A small meat processing company needs about 3 to 4 staff. The job description involves harvesting and dressing the carcasses.
The capacity of the plant depends on equipment and proficiency of the workers. Storage is through refrigeration and freeze trucks for distribution.
Labor expenses involve direct plant workers and casual labor. You need a plant manager, accountant, clerk and quality control officer.
Total variable fixed expenses are for electricity, supplies, gas, water, and insurance. More expenses revolve around pest control, license, repair and maintenance. Make sure you have a monthly income statement.
Byproducts from Meat Processing Plants
Meat processing plants produce huge quantities of waste and byproducts. The waste products include blood, inedible offal, bone and fat.
The product constitutes a secondary source of income and has many disposal challenges. Hides are sold to leather manufacturers and shoe makers.
While edible offal’s are used to manufacture animal feeds and dog food. Blood poses a health hazard and needs proper disposal and management.
Disposal methods are incineration, composting and subcontracting the waste management. You need an effective waste water treatment system and access to huge quantity of water.
Meat Processing Permits
Permits involve handling, sanitation and waste management. Regular inspection is expected throughout the year.
You need to apply for a trade permit and insurance cover. Incorporate the business as a limited liability company or sole proprietorship business. You need proper animal handling including good facilities.
The plan should have a harvesting room, carcass drip cooler and carcass aging cooler. You need a cutting room, storage facility, blast freezer, spice room and supply room. Other structures are office block and maintenance room.
Meat Plant Equipments
The equipment that is found in meat processing plants are too numerous. They cover implements used for harvesting, coolers, fabrication and further processing. Others are packaging equipment, general plant equipment and shipping.
Common equipment’s are beef cradle, hog cradle, splitting saw and captive bolt stunner. You need sterilizers, electronic rail scale, plastic barrels, pressure pumps, offal cart, hydraulic lift, trolley rack and final rail.
Further Processing Equipment
Further processing equipment are weight scales, bacon slicer, vacuum tumbler, meat injectors and mixer. More are band saw, knife sharpener and grinders.
Packaging involves ice machine, box scale, vacuum packaging machine and freezer carts. You will find refrigerators, blood tank, pressure washer and pumps.
Fixed assets include land, buildings and equipment. For waste management build a commercial septic tank and drainage system.