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Salted Snacks Namkeen Manufacturing

Salted snacks are delicious stop gap munchies for personal enjoyment and reduce hunger pangs. Due to their salty composition and industrial seal they are durable and last even longer under refrigeration.
Each snack type consists of a main ingredient and diverse additives such as nuts, vegetables, herbs and dried fruits. A popular salted snack in India is Namkeen made from different ingredients.
Manufacturers have perfected different types of Namkeen which are either baked or deep fried according to production requirements. The equipment needed is also based on the choice of product, manufacturing process and ingredient.
Some popular Namkeen Farshan snacks include Gathiya, Bhjia and Sev. The major difference between the snack types are flavoring, main ingredient and different Indian mix.
Namkeen has a huge market in India however the popularity extends to Pakistan and other Asian countries. Investors interested in Namkeen making need moderate funds for equipment, property leasing, wages and purchase of raw materials.
Let’s look at a few ideas on how to start a Namkeen manufacturing business.
Salted Snack Namkeen Commercial Production
Namkeen could be produced small scale or large scale depending on the business format. There are many fabricated and branded equipment used in the production of the salted snack.
However commercial batch type machines are essential for uniformity in product. Commercial Namkeen producers are usually medium to large scale companies.
The Namkeen you produce dictates the type of equipment you need. General equipment includes dough extruding equipment, frying equipment, industrial mixers, grinders and packaging equipment.
Large scale production involves spray applicators for seasoning including breading and batter applicators. The seasoning and coating system ensures accuracy in measurement and consistency in taste of the product.
A List of Namkeen Equipment
  • Food Processing Equipment
  • Dough kneader
  • Namkeen extruder
  • Mixer
  • Batch fryer
  • Del washer
  • Seasoning and Coating
  • Spray machine
  • Product handling
  • Packaging
  • Weighing
  • Inspection equipment
How to Make Namkeen Salted Snacks
Salted snacks are fried, baked or roasted. Fried salted nuts are cleaned, fried, flavored, mixed and packaged.
While snack such a Namkeen-Gathiya are produced from dough. The dough is kneaded, extruded, fried, mixed with different spices and packaged. The primary automatic equipment used in producing the snack is the extruder machine.
Location, Funding and Registration
An ideal location is close to source of raw material. It should have ample space for equipment, storage facility, and easy road access. 
You can set-up the enterprise close to a busy market or from home. You can access soft loans through cooperative societies or financial institutions in your locality.
Register the business as a sole proprietorship or limited liability company. Your company needs to conform to health and safety rules.  
The product should pass standard organization certification and get a Food and drug number. Your product could attract value added tax so find out what is obtainable in your country.
Differentiate your product through branding, memorable name and packaging. Make sure the package is attractive and part of the products appeal. To succeed produce high quality snacks with reasonable pricing.
Marketing the Snack
Sell the packaged snack to hotels, restaurants, departmental stores and grocery stores. Apply direct marketing techniques and hire sales representatives.
You can reach more customers through product branding and advertisement. Advertise in local publications and print handbills, posters and billboards.
Build a Website
A website is an important tool most companies use to inform and trade. Create a search engine optimized website and include high definition images and description. You could take orders from customers and add payment channels such as credit card or PayPal.

Starting an Akara Snack Business

Bean cake is a local delicacy in Nigeria and some West African countries. The business is profitable and the snack is enjoyed by both young and old. 
The major ingredient is beans and a few ingredients such as onions, pepper, salt, groundnut oil and spicing. Akara sellers are usually low income earners or small scale entrepreneurs with limited startup capital.
Usually the seller perfects the frying in an open environment and sells directly to patrons. The best times to fry the bean cakes are in the morning or evening.
There is high demand for the product and practitioners earn decent income from the business. To start the business you need a good location, learn how to make Akara, purchase equipment and pay local taxes.
Here are a few ways to start your Akara business.
Starting an Akara Snack Business
Learn How to make Bean Cake
Before your launch the enterprise learn how to make bean cake. Akara is very easy to make however you need to develop a cost effective and profitable recipe.
Learn how to make the delicious snack from books, online resources or a family member. The ingredients used in making the snack are basic however the mixture is slightly different and unique to the seller.

How to make Akara- Bean cake
To make Akara you need to purchase brown beans. It is important to purchase the beans in bulk for higher profit taking.
You can start with a bag of beans which could last a month or more depending on your customers and sales. Once you have your major ingredient (beans) buy a 25 liter gallon of groundnut oil.
Other ingredients you need are onions, pepper, salt and spicing. To make the Akara you can measure about ¼ paint bucket of beans.
You could start with a smaller quantity because once the mixture is made it depreciates quickly and spoils in a couple of hours. The beans are then washed in water to remove the outer covering.
Once this is done soak in water to soften the bean in preparation for grinding. After a while remove the water grind the beans and a little onion till you have a slightly smooth paste.
You can add small slices of onion to the paste including little pepper, curry and salt. Mix the bean paste thoroughly to integrate the ingredients.
Place your oil in a large frying bowl and apply heat. Once your oil is reasonably hot scoop small portions of the bean paste and fry in the oil.
Make sure your Akara is properly cooked by regulating the flame to prevent burning or over cooking. The consistency and look of the final product should be light brown.
Equipment Used in Making Bean Cake
The equipment used in making bean cake is simple and relatively easy to purchase. Buy a large bowl for frying including wood, charcoal and cooker.
There are many fabricated iron cookers specifically made for outdoor cooking. You also need charcoal, wood and accelerant such as kerosene to light the cooker.
Other equipment is long frying spoon, glass or plastic display case for the bean cake and plastic container for the raw bean paste. You need a small measuring spoon to scope the paste into the hot oil.
Most sellers can’t afford a grinding machine and patronize local grinders. However if you have money you should invest in a grinding machine. You would need a freezer or refrigerator to keep the remaining paste to prevent loss in revenue.
Equipment List
  • Glass Display Case
  • Large Frying Bowl
  • Long aluminum Spoon
  • Fabricated Cooker
  • Charcoal
  • Dry Fire wood
  • Grinder
  • Freezer or Refrigerator
  •  Plastic Bucket
  • Nylon or Newspaper  to Package the product
The Location
The most ideal location is in a public place with lots of human and vehicular traffic. You don’t need lots of space to display your product and fry the bean cake.
Many Akara sellers don’t have shops and make do with a table and cooker. To maximize profit Akara sellers include a few items to the menu.
They sell pap paste (ogi), bread and even garri. Bean cake is usually consumed with bread, pap or cereal.
Funding the Akara Business
Funding is relatively easy because you need very small funds to start the enterprise. You need funds to purchase a locally fabricated cooker, large frying bowl, plastic bucket and show glass.
Purchase only the amount of beans you can afford until you have a steady customer base. Try target savings or get small loans from cooperatives in your area.
Try micro-finance banks or small trade banks in your locality. You can borrow from friends and family to raise funds.
Registration and Permits
You don’t have to register your business however there are a few individual tax requirement. You need local government permit to sell at the spot you choose. Make sure you keep your environment clean to conform to environmental laws.
Selling the (Akara) Product
Your business is location specific and dependent on direct customer patronage. The only thing you can do is secure a good location and make quality products.
Make sure the size of the bean cake is reasonable and price fair. There are no marketing requirements except good tasty product. it is possible to make over a 100% profit in the business.

Poultry Processing Business

Foster Farms breast nuggets frozen
By BrokenSphere,, CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Apart from beef, poultry is the number one source of protein in most countries. The product is popular and highly sort in homes around the world.
It has domestic, food and industrial applications and is found in many products. The primary source of poultry meat is chicken however we get meat from turkey, pigeon, ostrich and dock.
 There are many small business ventures based on poultry products. However the four major areas are egg production, meat production, equipment manufacture and supply.
Every section is highly lucrative especially small scale poultry meat processing.  The business is competitive and the demand far outweighs the supply.

The rural areas account for 60% of small scale poultry production in developing countries. You can start small scale poultry processing plant with moderate investment.
All you need to do is downsize the production based on available funds. Before you start your enterprise there are certain provisions you need to meet such as company registration and permits.
Other important issues include public health, bird handling, hygiene and production output. Things to consider are equipment, staff, design of processing plant and location.
It is important to factor transportation, effluence disposal, plant maintenance including fixed and working capital. Other aspects are sourcing the birds, plant efficiency, packaging and marketing the product. Let’s look at what it entails to start a small scale poultry processing business
Small Scale Poultry Processing Business
To start your enterprise you need a business plan. Write a business plan and carry out a feasibility study.
Lease a factory for your abattoir, staff quarters, packaging and storage. Apply for bank loans and provide collateral and part of the startup funds.
Register the business as a sole proprietorship or limited liability company. Make sure you follow strict government guidelines on poultry meat processing.
Purchase equipment to carry out poultry processing and hire competent staff. Source your products from local farmers and formulate an effective marketing strategy.
  • Write business plan
  • Carry out feasibility study
  • Lease factory space
  • Apply for Bank Loans
  • Register your business
  • Purchase Equipment, Birds
  • Hire Staff
  • Marketing Strategy
Poultry Bird
Select specie of bird that have high meat ratio and purchase from reputable broiler farmers in your locality. Another method is growing the birds yourself in a farming environment. However this requires a deferent facility, veterinary services, heat and feeding.
Operational Procedure for Bird Processing
While setting up the poultry processing plant you need to determine the operational capacity. Knowing how many birds could be processed per day gives a framework on output.  
You need to choose the best bird species for meat production. Then provide adequate provisions for movement of the bird too and from the factory. 
Other important aspects of the production are evisceration, packaging, branding, and refrigeration. The number of birds processed in a small scale plant starts at 50-200 birds a day. Larger plants process 350 birds an hour using either air chilling or cold water chilling.
The business model for 50 birds involves stunning, slaughter, de-feathering then refrigeration. The model for 250 birds a day is stunning, de-feathering, evisceration, cooling, grading and refrigeration.
Model three involves 350-400 birds an hour processing through stunning, slaughter, de-feathering, evisceration, cooling, cutting, packaging and refrigeration.
Flow Chart of Poultry Processing
Health inspection of the Bird-Stunning-Slaughter-De-feathering-Evisceration, cooling, Packaging, Grading –Refrigeration
50-100 Birds/Day
200-300 Birds/DAY
300-400 Birds/Hour
Stun the Bird
Stun the Bird
Stun, Slaughter
Slaughter the Bird
Slaughter the Bird

Cutting, Packaging


Poultry hygiene and factory maintenance are very important requirement to run a successful factory. The birds need to pass regular health inspecting before and after slaughter.
Adequate provisions should be made for staff welfare and safety. You need effluence treatment protocols, good sanitation and regular maintenance.
Factory Facilities and Location
The location for your business should conform to zoning requirements. The building specification includes external reception area for the birds, loading and slaughter hall.
You need an evisceration room, cold room, packaging area and dispatch. Other requirements in your facility are offal room, staff quarters including effluence treatment area.
Marketing the Birds
There is a huge market for poultry birds so selling the product is easy. However you need to create adequate awareness to attract patronage.
 Use product branding on package and sell to frozen food dealers, restaurants, hotels, food plants and residents. Focus on mode of transportation, harvesting method and sales methods.
More on Information on Small Scale Poultry Processing

Matchsticks Manufacture

Matchsticks are a very handy tool used in starting a fire. They are used in the kitchen to light ovens, kerosene stoves and cookers.
Other application involves starting a fireplace, industrial burners, camp fire or to light candles. Matchsticks are made from plastic material, wood or cardboard strips. 
The lighting mechanism at the end is usually an inflammable substance that reacts to force or friction. The structure of the device starts with a thin stick and a solidified deposit of inflammable substance.
Heat is generated on contact of the solid mass which results in the flame. The subsistence of the flame is due to the presence of atmospheric air. There are two types of safety matches, strike anywhere matchsticks and safety matchsticks.
 The business is done both large scale and small scale depending on finance, business structure and purpose. Matches manufacturer needs to maintain a high level of safety protocols and follow government guidelines.
This is because of the inflatable nature of the product and raw materials. Matchsticks are in high demand and consumption outweighs production in many countries.
Although the product faces stiff competition from hand lighters they are still desirable. The huge demand equates to high profit potential for enterprising investors.
The product is packaged in small boxes for better storage and handling. To start your matchstick manufacture business you need moderate funding, good location, quality equipment and permits.
Brief History on Matches
The first friction matchstick was invented in England by John Walker. The product was flawed and difficult to use until a Frenchman Charles Sauria invented the strike anywhere match.
However the product caused several unintended fires and destruction. The inflammable substance he used was unstable and highly combustible The match making process was also hazardous with many serious health complications during the manufacturing process.
By 1855-1888 scientist’s discovered a nontoxic, less reactive phosphorous. The substance is used to produce modern day safety matches. The origin of the match box could be traced far back as 1894.
Here are a few business ideas on how to start a matchstick manufacturing business.

Matchstick Manufacture
Write a matchstick manufacture business plan. The plan should accommodate funding, raw materials, type of product and quality control. Things to consider in your business plan are your goal, financial requirements and marketing.
Funding the Enterprise
You require huge funds to purchase machinery, pay staff wages and rent a factory. Apply for bank loan from bank of industry or commercial banks in your area.
You could seek a core investor or try target savings. Other funding sources are through friends and family. Loans require collateral and guarantors including seed money.
Certification and Permits
There are a few legal compliances before starting your matchstick manufacture company. You need legal permit to establish the plant including a trade license.
Safety is off primary importance so you need to put in place many safety precautions. Register your matchstick enterprise as a limited liability company and fill tax requirements. Find out the permits and certifications you need in your country.
Locating the Matchstick Company
There are strict zoning formulas for establishing a matchstick factory. Find out the best locations by visiting your local government authority. 
An ideal location is in an industrial area and close to fire station. Other locations are away from residential areas and closeness to source of raw materials.
Raw Materials
The primary material used in making matches is wood. Not all wood are suitable for the production of match sticks.
Good wood should be rigid, porous, absorbent and straight grained. Ideal wood for matchstick production are aspen and pine.
Other raw materials needed for the product are ammonium phosphate, paraffin wax and potassium. More elements found in a matchstick are dye, powdered glass, sulfur, animal glue and filter. The match box is made from cardboard.
A List of Raw Materials used to Produce Match
  • Cardboard
  • Animal Glue
  • Inner Filter
  • Powdered Glass
  • Dye
  • Potassium
  • Paraffin Wax
  • Ammonium Phosphate
  • Sulfur
Machinery use in making Matches
You can divide the machinery into match making machinery, box making machinery, splint making machinery, packaging and handling machinery. Purchase a debarking machine, peeler, veneer, chopper, dryer. Others are blower, storage area box making equipment and polishing machine.
A List of Match Production Machinery
  • Box closing machinery
  • Box filling machinery
  • High speed dipping equipment
  • Splint veneer
  • Peeling
  • Splint chopping
  • Splint making
  • Splint spray
  • Packaging machinery
  • Head composition machinery
The Manufacturing Process
Stripped log is cut, peeled into sheet of wood. The veneer sheet is chopped into matchsticks and process with dilute ammonium phosphate.
The matchstick are then dried, polished cleaned using crystallized chemicals. To form the head the stick are dumped into feed hoppers then dipped in hot paraffin wax.
Once dried the sticks are immersed in liquid solution. Then another solution is applied to the tip of the match. The matchsticks are then slow dried for better functioning when struck. A unit manufactures the box before filling and packaging.
The matchstick manufacturer must maintain strict quality control during the production process. Using a semi-automated or automated plant ensures proper measurement of ingredients that goes into the manufacturing process.
Marketing the Product
The only difference between match box companies is box branding. Make sure you manufacture high quality products that meet standard requirements.
Sell your product to wholesalers or retailers in your area. Other outlets are supermarkets, departmental stores and grocery stores.

Starting a Pawn Shop Business

Pawnbrokers perform two functions buy personal property or secure loans for property. The customer might choose to use his personal property as collateral to obtain the loan.
The broker estimates the worth and value of the property and offers a sum. On the alternative the customer could choose to sell the property outright.
The item should have relative value before the pawnbroker accepts it as collateral. Common items found in pawn shops are cameras, jewelry, expensive items, antiques, musical instruments and television sets.
They also accept novelty items that are valuable and easy to sell. Within a contractual period an item pawned for a loan should be redeemed or the item is forfeited to the broker.
Therefore pawn brokers sell redeemed items and goods bought directly from the customer. Pawn shops are common in many countries such as Hong Kong- China, Malaysia, Philippines, India, Sri Lanka and Indonesia.
From shadowy beginnings pawn shops are now more upscale and have good reputation. They provide short loans governed by their respective countries trade and loan laws.
To start your pawn shop business you need to determine the business structure. Are you going to pawn and sell only items offered by customers?
Or adopt a different model by adding brand new items to your store. Here are a few ideas on starting a pawn shop business.
List of Items in Pawn Shop
  • Novelty Items
  • Painting
  • Electronic Items
  • iPod players
  • Cell phones
  • Cameras
  • Musical Instruments
  • Audio Equipment
  • Video Games
  • Jewelry
  • Computers
  • High-end Television sets
  • Power Tools
Starting a Pawn Shop Business
Pawn shops provide short term loans with high interest. To start the venture you need to master the art of valuing items.
You also need a good business plan, start-up estimate, permits and licenses. Other requirements are sales tax, business registration and location. Hire competent staff, purchase inventory and promote the establishment.
Write a Business Plan
Do a comprehensive market research to understand the business. The research identifies competitors, target demography, customer base, interests and wants.
Develop a powerful business concept, operational plan, financial plan and marketing strategy. Once you are through with your business plan carry out a feasibility study of your locality.
Learn Goods Valuation
The most important aspect of being a pawnbroker is mastering the art of valuation. This is very important to the success or failure of your enterprise.
Learn through different resources such as on hands experience in an established pawn shop. Other ways are through tutelage, apprentice schemes, online resources, internship programs, books and experience.
You need to know the secondhand retail value of items such as jewelry, electronic items and precious stones. Remaining trendy with current prices of goods is very important.
Apart from knowing the value of goods you need to establish positive identification of the seller to avoid stolen goods. Items are usually assed on its condition, value, current price and marketability.
Hard to sell items are usually rejected by pawnbrokers.
Loan Determination
The pawnbroker’s job is to determine the value of the item and offer an amount for loan. The value is usually determined using the wholesale value of that item.
The lower price offered has a short mature time with high interest rate. Knowledge of jewelry, germ stones, electronic and supply and demand are all techniques employed by brokers.
The loan could also be assed on likelihood of customer paying back the loan. The pawn shop owner needs to hire a qualified lawyer to write the agreement and contractual papers used during the loan process.
How to Get Start-up Capital
You need lots of start-up capital to cover loans and purchase of items. Create a financial plan to determine fixed and working capital.
Fixed capital involves furnishing, permits and security gadgets. Working capital entails staff wages, rent, maintenance and purchase or loans.
Visit any commercial bank in your area with your business plan and financial plan. You need to have at lest 1/3rd of startup funds and collateral. Try to secure long term loans with low fixed interest rates.
Pawn Shop Licenses and Permits
You need to apply for operational permit and licensing. The laws differ from each country so make sure you abide by them.
Secure a business name and register your business as a limited liability company. The company’s credit rate and financial statement should be properly documented.
You need a personal tax identification number and apply for sales tax permit. Apply for other licenses you may require including trade license.
Locating the Pawn Shop Business
There are strict zoning policies in some countries pertaining to pawn shops. A good location should have heavy pedestrian and vehicular traffic.
You shop should be easily accessibly, visible and centrally located. You need ample parking for your customers including storage space for goods.
The earning power or income level of your target customers should be accommodated such as middle class earners or upscale areas. The quality and value of the items you receive depends largely on your location.
Dubai gold market
By Joi ,CC BY 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Furnish the Shop
Your store need moderate furniture such as cashier table, shelves, lockable display cases and good security system.
Hire Staff
Hire only experienced staff with previous knowledge of the brokerage industry. You need a good accountant, sales girls and security personnel. Hire a driver, cleaner and expert-appraiser on freelance bases.
Inventory and Stock
Keep a good grasp of the inventory in your shop. You need to constantly restock with popular items to meet customer demands. Apart from receiving property for loans you could purchase items in auctions, yard sales, online or flea markets.
Promote the Store
You need to promote the store to attract steady patronage. Pawn shops are people oriented establishments and you need lots of customers to succeed.
You could offer discounts, launch fun activities or develop an online store. Advertise in local newspapers and magazines in your locality. Use traditional advertisement method such a printing flyers, billboards and banners to attract patronage.

How to Start a Scrap Metal and Aluminum Supply Business

Scrap Metal
Scrap metal supply is a highly lucrative business venture. It aids the environment, saves on metal production and puts hard cash in your pocket.
The major challenges are transportation, startup capital and earning top dollar for your product. Entrepreneurs interested in scrap metal can leverage on a regular supply of the metal.
Scrap metal is readily available and found in abundance. We find scrap metal in used refrigerators, rims, iron rods and vehicle parts. 
Other advantages are flexible working hours, good income generation and regular demand. The amount of startup capital depends on the size and scope of the business.
With moderate funding you can start a scrap metal supply business.
How to Start a Scrap Metal and Aluminum Supply Business
In some countries you will see scruffy people going through garbage and junk looking for scrap metal or aluminum. This is because the products attract high premium prices usually measured in tons.
To start a small scrap metal company you could create a collection center and buy directly from junk divers. A small scrap enterprise could cost about N500, 000($1000). The good part about the business is its simplicity and easy execution.
Locating the Scrap Yard
Find a suitable location for your collection site. The property you lease should have ample space for storage and sorting.
The property could be located within urban areas and have good transportation network. Find out the state and local government provisions on zoning.
Learn the Trade
You need to understand the type of scrap needed in a recycling plant. Scavenged products such as metal, copper, gold, silver and aluminum are in high demand.  
Develop a keen eye to detect and ascertain the volume off metal in each scrap salvaged. Scrap metal has grades according to purity of the metal. Gain knowledge through apprentice programs, seminars, books and trade workshops.
How Scrap Supply Business is done
The business template is very simple. Buy the scrap from scavengers or the general public.
Salvage only the components you want to sell and weigh them. You set a purchase price based on tons and in turn sell to recycling plants.
Equipment for your Scrap Yard
You need weighing machinery and heavy duty equipment to lift the scrap metal. Separate the different metals into their respective categories and purchase or sell accordingly.
The huge disparity in the purchase price by recycle plants from retailers makes the business very attractive. You also need is a vehicle to transport your scrap.
 Although you could hire a lorry the cost will reduce your profit margin. Purchase a used or fairly new lorry and drive the truck yourself or hire a trustworthy driver.
Other equipment’s you need are wire cutters, grinding wheel, drills, pliers, hammers and cutters.
A list of Equipment for Scrap Yard
Weighting equipment
Hand gloves
Eye goggles
Grinding wheel
Metal Types Found in Scrap Yards
Common metal types found in scrap yards are iron rods, beams, electrical wires and aluminum. Others include vehicle spare parts, bicycles, refrigerators.
You need to keep abreast of changing prices and daily fluctuations. The price of metal is dictated in the international market. Good sources of scrap metal are mechanic workshops and ship yards.
Sorting Scrap
Sorting is very important in the scrap business. Every metal needs proper sorting and placement in an appropriate location.
Anyone who has been to a scarp yard would notice different mounts of metal. Theses are metal that have been sorted according to grade and constituents.
A List of Scrap Metal
Here are a list of scrap metal to purchased based on your interest and business template. There are a number of ferrous and nonferrous metals that qualify. Scrap dealers buy some of the under listed items
Copper wire
Steel chairs
Aluminum sidings
Brass fixtures
Automobile engines
Vehicle parts
Obsolete machinery
Where to Sell the Scrap
Before collecting the scrape you need to network with scrap recyclers. The big companies are willing to provide transportation and logistic to aid suppliers. To find major dealers use yellow pages, newspaper publications and online resources.
A Recap on Starting a Scrap Supply Business
Before starting your scrap supply business you need to learn the trade. Identify and sort the metal according to their grade.
Learn how to strip or dismantle objects. Follow the changing prices of scrap metal especially those that receive your items.
Purchase a vehicle and lease suitable landed property. Purchase all the equipment you need and don’t forget protective gear.
Register your company as a sole proprietorship business or Limited Liability Company. Get tax identification number and insurance cover.
Find out other permits and licenses you need to operate the business.  Hire employees or work solo the choice is yours to make. Find buyers for your scrap metal and advertise the business through local newspapers.