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Vermicompost Fertilizer Production Business

Vermicompost is a mix of bedding, food waste and decomposing vegetable to produce fertilizer. The composting agent are live earthworms who covert bio-degradable food into organic fertilizer.
The product attracts premium prices and ideal for farming. The amount of money you invest depends on the size and scale of the enterprise.
You should decide on home business or purchase/lease a plot for the business. You could start a small organic fertilizer production business at home with $600. Things to consider are equipment, tools, raw materials, licensing and startup funding
Home Based Vermicompost Production Business
Why Vermicompost Business
The question is ‘Why-start a vermicompost business. The answer is simple, low startup, premium priced product and high returns.
Other benefits include eco-friendly nature, organic, moderate odor and practicable from home. There are few licensing requirements and you produce nutrient rich fertilizer.
The business is low maintenance and the worms are sell-able. The excess worms are sold to fish farmers, pet stores and farmers.
earthworms
Benefits of Vermicompost Business
  • Low startup
  • Premium priced product
  • High returns
  • Eco-friendly nature
  • Organic
  • Moderate odor
  • Few licensing
  • Nutrient rich fertilizer
  • Low maintenance
  • Sell the Worms
Startup Funding
You could raise capital by judiciously saving or borrow from family or friends. Approach a microfinance bank for soft loans or a thrift and credit society.
Raw Materials
Decomposing organic waste is used as a composite material. To successfully produce compost you need a sizable number of earth worms.
You could encourage worms to grow in your garden or buy from a pet shop.  There are different types of earthworms such as red worm and night crawler.
They are highly efficient in producing vermicompost why gorging on the food source.  You also need animal manure, earthworm bed, and dry leaves.
Other materials are waste food, peelings, fruits stems and vegetables. More are cow dung, farm residue, bio-degradable and food stuff.
  • Different types of Earthworms
  • Animal manure
  • Earthworm bed
  • Dry leaves
  • Waste food
  • Peelings
  • Fruits
  • Stems
  • Vegetables
  • Cow dung
  • Farm residue
Equipment and Tools
There are a few basic tools you need to produce the fertilizer. Purchase a shredder, strainer, garden fork, spade, wheel barrow, digger shovel and gloves.
  • Shredder
  • Strainer
  • Garden fork
  • Spade
  • Wheel barrow
  • Digger
  • Shovel and Gloves.
How to Produce Vermicompost
Collect the waste materials such as food waste, dry leaves, peelings and vegetables. Cut and shred then mix chicken droppings with old manure.
New manure produces high amount of manure and not idea conditions for worms. The mixture should be left for 4-10 days to encourage partial fermentation. 
Add the shredded material in appropriate ration to make the vermin-bed. An anaerobic process is achieved when the bed is watered and covered with nylon bag for 14-20 days.
Then add the earthworms to the bed and maintenance core temperature and moisture. Harvest manually by removing the earthworm or sifting.
Composite is ready in 40-50 days and aerate by turning every 30 days. Stock the compost in a properly ventilated space that is dry and secure.  
Vermicompost Production
  • Gather the bio-degradable waste
  • Shred and allow decomposition for 10 days
  • Select a shady spot
  • Construct your vermi bed
  • Arrange partially decomposed material in layers
  • Apply cow dung to 1st layer
  • Then introduce earth worm
  • Make sure the bed is moist by sprinkling water
  • Cover the top with nylon material
  • Turn every month to aerate
  • Remove worms through hand picking or sieve
  • Composite is ready in 40-50 days.
Licensing and Registration
Register a business and incorporate as a sole proprietor. You need a tax identification number from the bureau of internal revenue.
You can get technical assistance from the department of agriculture, department of science and technology and any vermi farm within your locality.
Marketing
Vermicompost is highly organic and an effective fertilizer. Organic farmers are willing to pay premium price for the product.
Contact local farmers and offer discounts and free delivery. Use local media such as newspaper advertisement and radio. You could also build a website and showcase your product.

Start a Nonstick Cookware Manufacturing Company

A cookware is a kitchen utensils used in the production of food. Millions of tons of cookware are sold in supermarkets, stalls, open market and malls.
They come in set pieces of 15, 12, 10, 8 and 6 pieces. There are many brands in the market and 2 broad types of nonstick coated cookware.
The nonstick coating is either PTFE or ceramic. The products come in different colors are sold as sets of pans and lids. Common colors include black, green, bronze,  red, and charcoal grey
Types of Non Stick Cookware
The two types are the nonstick ceramic and PTFE. The surface of the cookware is produced to resist sticking.
PTFE and Ceramic Cookware
PTFE nonstick material can withstand temperature up to 500F. Although the product is very effective there are concerns on its safety. At very high temperatures the product releases a gas that could be harmful to humans.
The main advantage is that PTFE cookware’s are more durable than ceramic products. However ceramic products are safer and more environmentally compliant.
pans lids nonstick cookingware
Different Types of Coating
The type of coating used by manufactures differs according to the manufacturing process. You have surfaces coated with anodized aluminum, and polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE). Others are ceramic coating, seasoned cookware, enamel cast iron and silicone.
  • anodized aluminum
  • polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE)
  • ceramic coating
  • seasoned cookware
  • enamel cast iron
  • Silicone.
Raw Materials
The cooking ware is made from cast aluminum, stainless steel and regular aluminum.
Production Process
 The stainless steel blank is greased and placed on a hydraulic drawing press. The shaped raw body is punched and fitted with capsule bases.
There are different types of bases used by manufactures such as premium induction base, induction capsule base and pressed induction base. The production methods are deep –drawing or impressions die forging.
Cast aluminum cookware is pre-shaped using a mould under vacuum pressure. The product is highly heat resistant and formed into preferred shapes.
Coating
An effective method is to apply triple layer coating. We have the top layer, primer and middle layer coating. The non-stick coating agent is the polytetrafluorethylene PTFE.
None stick Cookware Manufacturing Equipment
Common equipment are drilling machine, air compressor cylinders baking oven and spraying equipment. Others are weighing equipment, and buffing machine.
Licensing and Certification
Obtain a trade license and apply for BIS certification. Register a business and incorporate as a LLC.
There are some anti pollution requirements manufacturers need to follow. You also need an employer identification number and insurance cover.
How to Start a Nonstick Cookware Manufacturing Business
  • write a business plan
  • carry out a feasibility study
  • secure funding
  • learn the manufacturing process
  • rent a warehouse
  • purchase equipment
  • hire qualified staff
  • make the product
  • market.

Small Scale Wristwatch Strap Making Business

Despite the proliferation of time devices and phones wristwatches are still popular.  This is especially true for top brands and lowly priced ones. 
The business is practicable from home full time or part time. Startup cost is low/moderate and learning the trade even easier. The primary raw material is leather which is readily available in most countries.
Locating the Business
The business is done from home or a small factory. Use an outhouse or garage to manufacture the straps from home. Alternately find an ideal location that has proper utility such as electrical power.
wristwatch
Learn the Trade
Learn the trade by attending workshops, seminars or art and craft gatherings. Learn from blogs, websites or short online courses. Try apprenticeship or learn from an established manufacturer.
  • attend seminars
  • art and craft workshops
  • Learn from blogs, websites
  • Try short online courses
  • Apprenticeship
  • Learn from an established manufacturer.
Types of Leather
There are different types of leather used in making watch straps. The hide is processed from goats, cow, buffalo and sheep. The leather might go through a tanning process to remove impurities.
Wristwatch Strap Making Equipment
The major expenditure of a Homebased enterprise is equipment. Basic small scale equipment includes hand tools, stamping machine and sewing machine. Others are punching machine, clicking press and skiving machine.
  • hand tools
  • stamping machine
  • sewing machine
  • punching machine
  • clicking press
  • Skiving machine.
 Raw Materials
Raw materials include upper leather, thread and adhesive. More are lining leather, split leather, buckles and nylon packaging.
  • upper leather
  • thread
  • adhesive
  • lining leather
  • split leather
  • buckles
  • nylon packaging
Licensing
Secure a nice trademark for your watch straps. Register the business and obtain a trade license.
The product might involve value added tax registration and BIS certification. You also need a tax identification number.
  • obtain a trade license
  • trademark
  • value added tax registration
  • BIS certification
  • MSME registration
  • Tax identification number.
Wristwatch Making Process
The manufacturing process starts with the procurement of leather. Then it goes through clicking and skiving process.
The lining is then attached and buckle fitted. Finally the leather is stitched, finished and quality controlled. The straps are then packaged and shipped to customers.
Marketing
Your major markets are watch manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers. Produce the straps according to customer’s specification and meet the orders.
Showcase your designs on a dedicated website and social media accounts. Find wristwatch manufacturers through directories, yellow pages and search engines. Once you have a list send them a brochure of your products and designs.



Start Ladies Footwear Manufacturing Business

Ladies footwear accounts for a huge part of the shoe industry. They are highly sort after products around the world.
The footwear industry is divided into manufacturing, wholesale, retail and repairs. Practitioners in this industry make good money whatever sector they choose to operate.
Shoe making requires moderate/huge startup capital. Apart from purchase of equipment, they need distribution network, adequate storage facility and proper inventory management.
Other requirements include quality products, efficiency, licensing and effective marketing strategy. A popular brand would attract many wholesale and retailers interested in the product.
Ladies Footwear Company Licensing and Permit
Footwear companies design the shoes they produce. To avoid copyright infringements the original design is patented.
The shoes should conform to quality checks and standardization. You might need tax identification number, BIS and ISO 9001certification.
The company’s products are subject to value added tax and a trade license. Incorporate as a sole proprietorship or Limited Liability Company. And introduce an effective waste material management system.
  • patent original designs
  • standardization
  • tax identification number
  • BIS and ISO 9001certification
  • value added tax
  • trade license
  • sole proprietorship or Limited Liability Company
ladies footwear
Shoe Making Raw Materials
Shoes are made from different fabrics depending on the application. Shoes have the upper side, insole, out-sole, accessories and auxiliary materials. 
Materials generally used in the upper parts are rubber fall, leather fabrics, and natural leather. Others are plastics, paramedics, textile material, composite material and synthetic fabric.
Out-sole material consists of polyurethane and thermoplastic rubber. More material is polyvinyl chloride and ethylene Vinyl Acetate.
Accessories are hooks, zips, rivets and eyelets. Other accessories are buckles, metal fittings, threads, shoe laces and shanks. They stock adhesives, polish, packaging materials such as cardboard boxes and cartoons.
Shoe Materials
  • rubber fall
  • leather fabrics
  • natural leather
  • plastics
  • paramedics
  • textile material
  • composite material
  • synthetic fabric
  • polyurethane
  • thermoplastic rubber
  • polyvinyl chloride
  • Ethylene Vinyl Acetate.
Accessories
  •  hooks
  • Zips
  • Rivets
  • Eyelets
  • Buckles
  • metal fittings
  • threads
  • shoe laces
  • shanks
Hire Staff
Hire only qualified and experienced staff to run the operation. They have management team, experienced machine operators, drive, secretary and sales representatives.
The footwear maker uses direct labor or forklift equipment to load inventory.
Ladies Footwear Machinery
There are many equipment’s used in the manufacturing process. A standard shoe production company has skiving machine, stitching machines and bending machine.
Others are the scoring machine, die cutting machine, scissors and finishing machine. Office equipment includes computer, design software, printer, scanner design templates, telephone, fax and furniture.
  • skiving machine
  • stitching machines
  • bending machine
  • scoring machine
  • die cutting machine
  • scissors
  • finishing machine
  • computer
  • design software
  • printer
  • scanner
  • design templates
  • telephone
  • Fax and furniture.
Marketing
Top brands use advertisement to sell their brand. They use both offline and online resources. Other methods are classified listing and social media advertisements. You find lots of shoe images in newspapers, billboards, posters and banners



How to Start a Profitable Pest Control Business

You can earn good income providing pest control services. According to the bureau of statistics the average wage for technicians was $32, 160 per year in 2015.
A pest control provider should be tough, rugged and resourceful. You need protective gear, commercial license, use approved chemicals or hardware.
You are to determine your sector of operation. You could become a pest control dealer or pesticide broker. Others are pest controller or maintenance garden pest controller.
You could work as an individual or incorporate a business. The job is applicable part-time or full time depending on your business template. To succeed in the business you need an effective marketing strategy, knowledge of the industry and appropriate equipment.
Challenges
Challenges include serious health risks and competition with established brands. Others include mandatory state regulations, certification and funding.
More are purchase of appropriate equipment, continuing training fees. You need a fitted van, adequate storage and disposal unit.
You face litigation, property damage issues and exposure to harmful chemicals. The job is labor intensive and requires adequate planning/ patience.
picture of ants on wood
Determine Your Sector of Operation
Before you start the business you need to determine your sector of operation. You could decide to provide advisory services or become a dealer designated agent.
Other job specifications are aircraft pest control operator, qualified applicator and maintenance garden pest controller. You could decide to deal wholesale retail with equipment or chemicals. Pest controllers should focus on prevention control and proper pesticide handling.
Learn the Trade
There are lots of chemical, applications and protective gear. You should learn about common pests, understand their biology, habits and diet.
You would need to attend pre-exam workshops, practical’s and pass state examinations to get pest control certification. To quality as a pest controller you need 3 months formal training.
A pest control technician’s job description is diagnoses and control of pests and inspection. They perform inspections, form strategies to eliminate harmful pests such as rodents and insects.
They handle toxic liquids, chemical solutions and gases. Career requirements are high school diploma and state additional training.
Personal skills include physical strength, good bookkeeping, knowledge of chemical solutions and stamina.
Some states require continuing education courses for pest control technicians. This is to keep them updated to changing trends and techniques.
Types of Pests
Pest could cause millions of damage in property or destroy entire farms. They cause harmful disease, spread epidemic and or health related problems.
Common pests are termites, ants, cockroaches and bed bugs. Others include rodents, flies, mosquitoes, fleas, ticks and beetles.
More are wildlife, spiders, stinging pests, earwigs and gnats. You have weevils fruit flies, stink bug, millipedes and mites.

 Types of Pests

•    Termites
•    Ants
•    Cockroaches
•    Bed bugs
•    Rodents
•    Flies
•    Mosquitoes
•    Fleas
•    Ticks
•    Beetles
•    Wildlife
•    Spiders
•    Stinging pests
•    Earwigs
•    Gnats
•    Weevils
•    Fruit flies
•    Stink bug
•    Millipedes
•    Mites
Types of Pest Control Methods
There are different types of pest control methods available to technicians. They use animals, repellents, biological agents and mechanical pest control.
They use physical methods such as barriers, poisoned baits and elimination of breeding grounds. Other methods include hunt, trap cropping, field burning, traps and pesticides.
More are space fumigation, space treatment, natural control methods, destruction of infected plants and sterilization.

 Pest Control Methods

•    Use control animals
•    Repellents
•    Biological agents
•    Mechanical pest control
•    Barriers
•    Poisoned baits
•    Elimination of breeding grounds
•    Hunting
•    Trap cropping
•    Field burning
•    Traps and pesticides
•    Space fumigation
•    Space treatment
•    Destruction of infected plants and sterilization.
Pesticide Regulations
There are different regulations guiding the enterprise in each country. To acquire a license you should be 18 year old and need to pass a written examination before certification.
There are also certain forms and fees to pay including associations to join. According to the California department of pesticide regulations there are 4 categories of licensing.
The categories are individual licenses, business license, structural pest control license including vector control licenses and certification. The licenses are granted to businesses and individual operators.

 Pest Control Licenses

•    Structural pest control license
•    Vector control license
•    Gardener pest control
•    Pest control aircraft certification
•    Agricultural pest control adviser
•    Pest dealership license
•    Pesticide broker license
Structural Pest Control and Vector Control Licenses
Vector control is under the division of communicable disease control and the structural pest under the structural pest control board.
Business Licenses
The business licenses are pest control dealer and pesticide broker licenses. Other licenses are pest control business license and maintenance gardener pest control license.
Individual Licenses
Individuals are granted licenses such as qualified applicator certificate and qualified applicator licenses. More are maintenance Gardener pest control, pest control aircraft pilot certification. You have the agricultural pest control adviser certification and pest control dealer designated agent license.
Pest Control Equipment
Pest controllers use many application and protective equipment. The equipment depends on the type of pest control and management application.
Common equipment includes sprayers, dusters, granular spreaders and fogging equipment. Others are bait guns, safety gear, working gloves, chemical gloves respirators and UV flashlights.
More are spill kits, vacuums, sprayer cleaners, boot covers, fencing material, baiting tools and aerosol dispensers.
Marketing
The major challenge is finding clients and competition. You can attract patronage through newspaper, radio and television advertisement.
Use flyers, poster, billboards and higher aggressive sales agents. Build a website for your business and direct targeted traffic through online advertisement.

How to Start a Bureau De Change Business

A bureau de change is authorized to carry out foreign exchange transaction. They deal in all major currencies such as the Dollar, Yen, Pounds, Euro and local currency.
Very few companies and individuals have access to foreign currency because of bank bureaucracy. This is why foreign exchange dealers provide valuable service to customers.
Challenges
Forex dealers face lots of challenges such as funding, security and cash liquidity. Others include robberies, strict operational regulations and frequent policy changes by federal government.
Things to Consider
There are a few things to consider before launching your enterprise. You need to apply for a license, financials and structure a management team.
What are your internal controls, non-permissible activities? There are also operational and anti- money laundering provisions.
money
Funding Sources
You need a minimum of N100 million to start the business. Secure funds from venture capitalists, core investors, and share equity investors. You could try obtaining bank loans or partnership arrangements.
Write a Business Plan
Start by writing a Bureau De Change business plan and carry out a feasibility study. Focus on funding, paid-up share capital, licensing and operational office. Learn the intricacy of the business and find an ideal location.
Customer Demography
Foreign exchange dealers service many sectors of the economy. They provide money for students, exporters, travelers, tourists and small business owners. Others include petroleum marketers, importers and manufacturing companies.
Application for Licensing
1.To carry out the business of bureau De Change you need authorization from the central Bank. The application is in two stages API and Final approved license.
To get an approval in principle you pay a non refundable application fee of N100, 000 and minimum capitalization of N35, 000,000 million naira. The said sum is later refunded by the central bank on approval of final license.
 The company needs to present a Business plan and feasibility report to the regulatory body.
2. Contents of the Business Plan and feasibility report
The content of your Business plan and feasibility reports should include your serve, objectives and management structure. Add financial projections, growth indicators and profitability.
The report should have the composition of the board, functions and responsibilities. Make provisions for anti-laundry laws of compliance.
3. You need to add a letter of intent of shares of each subscriber and a draft memorandum and Article of Association.
4. The business name should be incorporated at the corporate affairs commission. Once the board has been approved a commercial bank may grant approval to commence business.
The approval in Principle is only temporary before the final approval by the regulatory body.
Final License
Once you have an Approval-in-Principle you should apply for final approval. This should be done six months after the AIP.
You submit an application to the central bank with a non refundable sum of N1, 000,000 million Naira. Include CV of top management team, evidence of incorporation, suitable operational office and evidence of mandatory caution deposit.
The caution deposit is N35 million Naira and refundable once you start the operation. The license is granted subject to the fulfillment of CBNs conditions.
Final License Requirement
  • Minimum paid-up share capital N35 million
  • Non refundable change of name fee N100,000
  • Non-Refunded annual license N250,000
  • Mandatory caution deposit N35 million
  • Non-Refundable application fee N100,000
Hire Staff
Hire a management director or chief executive officer. Other management staffs include compliance officer, management staff and regular staff.
Bureau De Change Operations
A bureau de change is approved to deal in bank notes, coins and plastic cards. The foreign currency should be sourced locally or through the central bank.
Any one changing more than $10,000 are required to disclose source of funds. Business deals are deemed spot transactions and forward transactions prohibited.
BTA and PTA transactions are pegged at maximum of $4000-$5000. You are mandated to keep proper registers and records of transactions.
The buying and selling rates should be conspicuously displayed for customers. Travelers seeking foreign exchange should present travel documents before allowed to purchase foreign currency.
Penalties
There are lots of penalties such as license revocation or fine fees. Infractions are engaging in prohibited activities and under subscription of minimum paid-share capital.
Others are failure to obtain CBN approval. Operating without a valid license and late rendition of regulatory returns are penalized. More are submitting false information and failure to comply with policies and guidelines.
Marketing
Offer repeat customers small discounts, enter into strategic partnerships and advertise. Use visible sign boards, television and radio advertisement. Build a website and engage in social media posting.