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Guide to Starting a Radio Station

Starting a radio station is moderately challenging and lucrative. You need good transmission equipment, qualified staff and operational license.
You need to determine the type of broadcasting, frequency and content. Other challenges include finding an ideal location, government restrictions and funding.
Depending on the type of broadcast you need a minimum of N 20 million (naira) to setup a small station. This includes fess, levies, operational license, and equipment.
Radio Station
How to Start a Radio Station
Choose the Type of Broadcast
Before setting up your radio station you need to choose the broadcast format. We have satellite TV, Satellite radio, and terrestrial radio. Others are direct to home format, cable, government and local radios. Once you have determined the type of broadcast you need content.
  • satellite TV
  • Satellite radio
  • terrestrial radio
  • terrestrial TV
  • direct to home format
  • cable
  • government
  • local radios
There are stipulated rules to content delivery. A licensee is required to broadcast 60% local content for open television and 80% for radio. Cable should broadcast minimum 20% local content. The station is also mandated to promote national interest, cohesion and unity.
Incorporate the Company
You need to incorporate the business with the corporate affairs commission. Register the business as a limited liability company.
The company is required to have a minimum N1 million naira shareholders. You need to define the type of broadcasting and content in your article of association.
Lease Office Space
The location of the station is very important. This is because broadcasting license is location based. Make sure the office has the appropriate equipment, good transmission room and broadcast studio.
Hire competent staff with experience in broadcasting. The staff should have a minimum of bachelor’s degree or good technical knowledge.
You need broadcast staff, technicians, journalist, location drivers and management staff. Others are secretary, cleaners, accounts officer and content creators.
  • on air broadcast staff
  • technicians
  • journalist
  • location drivers
  • management staff
  • account officer
  • advert department staff
  • secretary
  • cleaners
  • content creators
Every broadcasting station is allotted a frequency. The frequency is where the transmission reaches its audience.
Once you are allotted a frequency you need to test out your broadcasting. Testing a frequency is only permitted once the operational license and permit is granted.
Radio Station Equipment
The primary equipment in a radio station is the audio Console. A panel controller operates the audio console control that transmits the broadcast.
There are basic equipments you find in a radio station. Common equipment is phone talkback system, button panel, level meters, and audio console.
Others are microphone, payouts/automated software, headphone. More include on air light, talent panel, studio monitor speakers, cd players, microprocessors and DAT machines.
  • audio console
  • phone talkback system
  • button panel
  • level meters
  • microphone
  • payouts/automated software
  • headphone
  • on air light
  • talent panel
  • studio monitor speakers
  • cd players
  • microprocessors
  • DAT machines
Rank Room Equipment
Rank room equipments are studio hub, audio/O Node, mix engine. More are computer, KVM Extender, network router, broadcast audio processor and satellite receiver.
  • studio hub
  • audio/O Node
  • mix engine
  • computer
  • KVM Extender
  • network router
  • broadcast audio processor
  • satellite receiver
Transmitter Equipment
You need good transmitter equipment. Common ones are FM exciter, FM stereo generator, composite switcher, studio transmitter link.
More are antenna cabiner, transmitter remote control and antenna array. Office equipment includes stationeries, standby generator, and furniture.
  • FM exciter
  • FM stereo generator
  • composite switcher
  • studio transmitter link
  • antenna cabiner
  • transmitter remote control
  • antenna array
Procedure for Obtain a Broadcasting License
The License is obtained for community radio, free to air terrestrial TV. Others are FM Radios, Satellite broadcasting, Direct to Home and Direct Satellite broadcast.
The applicant should be a Limited Liability Company with minimum share capital of N1 million. Other documentation include certificate of incorporation, memorandum and Articles of Association.
More documents are feasibility study, letter of bank guarantee and payment of license fee. FM Radio is city based and religious or political organizations are prohibited.
  • Limited Liability Company
  • minimum share capital of N1 million
  • certificate of incorporation
  • memorandum and Articles of Association
  • feasibility study
  • letter of bank guarantee
  • payment of license fee
Licensing Application Form
In pursuance of an application for broadcasting in Nigeria a set form fee is paid. The commission certifies that the applicant is a registered corporate body under the Companies and Allied Act. They must ascertain that they are not applying for any foreign interest.
Licensing Fee
The schedule of licensing fee is paid for an initial term not exceeding five years and subject to renewal. There are ten categories covered by the Nigerian Broadcasting Commission.
The categories are locations in port Harcourt, Lagos and Abuja Category A, Category B Any other locations. Others are cable satellite television, government stations and direct home DTH. Fees cover direct broadcasting satellite, wholesale importers/dealers.
The direct to home fees are N25 million for five years, N5 million renewals. Cable fees are N5 million for five years Lagos Abuja Port Harcourt.  Other locations attract 4 Million naira.
Category A Radio N20 million, Terrestrial TV N15 million, Cable N10 million(Lagos, Abuja, Port Harcourt). Other locations Radio N15 million, Terrestrial 12.5 million, cable N7.5 million.
  • Category A locations in port Harcourt, Lagos and Abuja
  • Category B Any other locations
  • cable satellite television
  • government stations
  • direct home DTH
  • wholesale importers/dealers
How do Radio Stations Make Money
Since radio stations don’t charge listeners how do they make money? There are several ways the make money especially from popular shows. Popular shows attract corporate sponsors in the form of advertisement.
On air advertisement is the primary revenue earner for radio stations. The cost of the ad is predicted on the length and time of broadcast. Pick periods attract higher advertisement costs and attracts huge audience.
Other revenue generating sources are through special events, syndication of popular shows and selling newscasts. Independent producer’s can purchase air time for their programs.
Radio Earning Sources
Renewal of License
The procedure for renewal of license is clear outstanding financial obligations to NBC. The application should include original application form for expired license and a report of compliance.
The broadcasting station could be subjected to inspection by NBC and transmission logbook made available. The application for is submitted to the director General NBC through the zonal director.

How to Start a Bell Apple Business in Nigeria

Selling locally produced bell apples is a very lucrative niche market. Growing them in Nigeria is even rare because not many people know they grow easily in certain geographical locations.  
A single tree can produce huge number of fruits and once established require low maintenance. The fruit attracts good price in the market because it is a rare delicacy.
Interestingly we had a bell apple tree at the back of our family house which we named monkey apple. We did not plant it and suspect that the seeds were dropped by birds. After years of enjoying the fruits we cut the tree and today a guava tree stands in its place.
bell apple
Starting a Bell Apple Business
The business comes with its own set of challenges. Birds and bats love the fruits so they can consume an entire tree. Other difficulties include low rainfall, sacristy of the seedlings. Once the fruit is harvested it should be sold or eaten in a few days or it spoils.
  • Birds and bats eat the fruits
  • Need adequate rainfall
  • sacristy of the seedlings
  • high mortality of fruits after harvest
Business Opportunity
There are some opportunities in bell apple production. They can be processed into products such as wines, jam, juice and marmalade. You could organize seminars and earn huge money teaching others the business. There is also a good market for bell apple concentrates.
Products and Opportunities
  • Production of wines
  • Jam
  • Juice
  • Marmalade
  • You could organize seminars
  • Good market for bell apple concentrates
  • Sell seedlings
Purchase/lease Farm Land
To start the business you need farm land. You can either buy or lease the land. It is better to purchase the land so you own the trees. Agricultural land is cheep and you can purchase acres.
Bell Apple Seedlings
You need to purchase the seedlings from a farmer. You need 160 seedlings per acre at the cost of N100 per seedling. Therefore production of 100 seedlings for three months comes to N20, 000 naira.  The cost of 160 seedlings for a plantation can be estimated at N160, 000 - N200, 000 naira.
The Market
The fruits native origin is Malaysia so there are only a handful of farmers in Nigeria. There is a market for the fruits, pre-germinated seeds, seeds and seedlings.
The farmer tends to make 100% of investment every season once the tree matures. It takes about three years for the plant to grow into full maturity. Seedling producers earn much quicker within six months.
How to start guava farm
How to start banana farm

Procedure for Change in Name and Object Clause of Private Limited Company

A private limited company could decide to change the name to accommodate the new corporate identity. There are set down procedure for change of name of a company. The change affects a change in memorandum and article of association and name. Once a resolution is passed they need to ascertain the availability of the name.

Procedure of Change of Company Name (Act2013)

There are five clauses that need addressing in the memorandum of association. You have the capital clause, name clause. Others are liability clause, object clause and registration clause. The company can alter any of the clauses.

To alter the clause the company needs to pass a special resolution of the shareholders. This is applicable to all clauses except capital clause. The capital clause can be altered at an ordinary resolution of company shareholders.

Memorandum of Association Clauses

  • capital clause
  • name clause
  • liability clause
  • object clause
  • registration clause

Registration Office Clause

The registration office clause could refer to situation clause. The situation clause is where jurisdiction of the State and ROC where registered office of the company is situated.

The Object Clause

The object clause is where the main activity of the incorporated company is mentioned

The Liability Clause and Name Clause

The liability clause is where the liability of members is mentioned.  The name clause is where the name of the company is mentioned.

How a Special Resolution is passed

To pass a special resolution the company needs to convene a meeting.  An issue of notice to call the Board of Directors is enshrined in the companies Act 2013.

Procedure to Change the Company Article of Association, Name

The board makes a resolution regarding specified change. They then approve and issue notice of general meeting.

The notice of general meeting is issued to shareholders, auditors and directors of the company. The general meeting is held and a special resolution is passed. The required documents are filled with the appropriate company registrars.

Step 1: Convene meeting of Board of Directors

Step 2: Issue of notice of General Meeting

Step 3: Hold General Meeting of Company Step

Step 4: Approval from Registrar of Companies

Once there is a special resolution of change of name by the company’s shareholders the article of association needs to be changed.

Guide on how to become government contractor

How to register your business with CAC


How to Start a Profitable Soap Making Business in India

Soap is an essential commodity in homes, hospitals and dormitories. The business is highly lucrative and competitive. You will compete with different brands in the market.
To start the business you need to learn the trade then purchase soap making equipment. You can start the business small scale and expand as it grows.
The amount of startup depends on the size and scope of the enterprise. The amount of money you make depends on the quality of the product, marketing, consumer interest.
You can do the business part time or full time from the comfort of your home. The major advantage is the huge Indian market and cost differentiation's. Here are a few ideas on how to start a soap Business.
Soap Making Business in India
Starting a Soap Business in India
Types of Soap
The different types of soap are separated into soft or hard soap. The harden agent constitutes the composition of the soap. While natural soaps are usually softer than regular ones.
Common kitchen soaps are categorized as cleansers or detergents.  Cleansers constitute mild abrasives and formulated to remove solid oils. Detergents include two types of dishwashers.
Other types are antibacterial soaps for personal hygiene and cleaning soaps. More include novelty, perfumed, medicated and beauty. There are also miniature guest soaps, transparent and liquid soaps.
Different of Soaps
  • natural soaps
  • cleansers
  • detergents
  • dishwashers
  • antibacterial soaps
  • novelty
  • perfumed
  • medicated
  • beauty soaps
  • miniature guest soaps
  • transparent
  • liquid soaps
The location of the business is very important. This is because there are environmental issues in soap production.
Make sure adequate provision is provided to avoid external contamination of the surrounding area. This includes proper care of drainage system, public lavatories and drains leading out of the factory.
The location should be close to source of raw material and easily accessible. You cannot establish a soap factory near residential areas.
The building should be properly ventilated with safety equipment installed. Provide proper sanitation facility including building maintenance.
The design should prevent external contaminants such as birds, rodent’s, pests, and insects. Proper provisions are necessary for liquid and solid waste disposal. You need to also provide safe storage, healthcare for staff.
Things to consider while choosing a Soap Factory Location
  • environmental issues
  • avoid external contamination
  • proper drainage system
  • public lavatories
  • close to source of raw material
  • easily accessible
  • establish away from residential areas
  • building properly ventilated
  • safety equipment installed
  • proper sanitation facility
  • building maintenance
  • proper liquid and solid waste disposal
  • provide safe storage
  • healthcare for staff
License Requirement for Hand Made Soap in India
We have earlier established that hand made soap is in high demand. They are used for washing, eliminating harmful bacteria and have a pleasant smell.
Legislation pertaining to manufacturing of soap is covered in the Drug and Cosmetic act of 1940 rules of 1945. The section involves cosmetic chemicals used for cleaning, beatification and rubbing.
Others are sprinkling, spraying or applying to human body. This effectively points to hand soaps as a good contender. You need a manufacturing license and the soap should have an approved number.
There are also safety protocols, insurance, tax requirements. To get a manufacturing license visit the state drug authority. Apply in person, fill form 31 and pay the respective fees.
Specify the classification and provide knowledge of basic chemistry. You are required to have appropriate education, diploma, bachelor’s degree or vocational training certification.
The application requires information on manufacturing facility, equipment and technical competence.
Soap Making Ingredients
Different types of ingredients can be used in the manufacturing process. The ingredients establish the color, aroma and foaming.
The ingredients are basically used as colorants, preservatives, oils fats and base elements. The common base element used in making home soap is lye and potash.
Lye helps harden the soap to your desired consistency. The acidic element used in soap manufacture is the oils and fats.
Common oils are jojoba, castor oil, peanut oil, coconut oil, avocado oil and olive oil. More include Shea-butter, palm oil, cotton seed oil and lard.
Skincare ingredients are honey, aloe vera, oatmeal, balsam and alfalfa meal. A natural preservative increases the shelf life of the soap.
Common preservatives are tocopherols, carrot root oil and grapefruit extract. Some manufacturers also introduce soap dyes.
Soap Making Equipment
First you need to customize your system and design. This will provide efficiency in the manufacturing process. There are some equipment’s you need to start your production line.
Equipment's are oil/wax mixing tanks, bomb presses, soap cutters and soap molds. Others include drying trays, rack, lye tanks and Shrink wrap system.
You need pumps, pot tippers, mixing pots, utensils, dispensers, weighing equipment. More are soap shaper, sampler, stirring equipment and soap stamps.
Soap Equipment
  • oil/wax mixing tanks
  • bomb presses
  • soap cutters
  • soap molds
  • drying trays
  • rack
  • lye tanks
  • shrink wrap system
  • pumps
  • pot tippers
  • mixing pots
  • utensils
  • dispensers
  • weighing equipment
  • soap shaper
  • sampler
  • stirring equipment
  • soap stamps
Hand Soap Manufacturing
Soap goes through different processes to become bar or detergents. The process is associated to the size, shape color, fragrance and foam content.
The manufacturer combines fats, oils and chemical in a predetermined formula. It involves blending, alteration, ornamentations and finishing.
The bar goes through cutting, branding, packaging, labeling. The label should contain indications of the ingredients, company name and address.
Soap Manufacturing Process
The marketing requirements involve branding and promotions. Advertise your product in newspapers magazines and newsletters. Use billboards, signboards, flyers and business cards.
Employ sales representatives to work on commission per sale. Sell in bulk to shop owners, provision stores, supermarkets, soap retailers.
Build a website to showcase your products and add HD images, description, prices. Include factory location, email address, customer service lines. Create an ecommerce store to sell your product to customers. You can direct traffic to your website through social media advertisement and Adwords.


How to Start a Successful Soap Making Business in Nigeria

The importance of soap cannot be over emphasized. Soap is an integral part of our daily lives and they come in various colors, sizes, fragrances, shapes.
Quality products easily stand the test of time and are daily consumables. Soap is used for personal hygiene, washing cloths, cleaning dishes or dirty surfaces.
The business is highly profitable because Nigeria has a huge market of over 160 million people. This provides a good platform for profit making if properly utilized.
Soap making
Wikimedia Commons
Soap Making Business
Why Start a Hand Made Soap Business
The simple fact is that soap making is profitable. However you face serious competition from established brands.
In Nigeria huge conglomerates run the soap business. But there is still room for small scale manufacturers.
To succeed you need to focus on a niche and produce high quality products. Make sure your products are sold at reasonable price.
The packaging, branding is very important so make it attractive and easy to identify. Slowly build a customer base through promotions, discounts, local advertisement.
To start small you need basic tools readily available in the open market. Another advantage is the low startup capital, home practicability. You can also operate alongside your regular job part time or full time.
  • soap making is profitable
  • focus on a niche
  • produce high quality products
  • sell reasonable price
  • create an attractive product
  • you need basic tools
  • low startup capital
  • home practicability
  • part time or full time
Variety of Soap
There are two general categories the hard and soft soap. The presence of hardening agent produces the hard soap.
To start the business you need to know the different types available in the market. They are differentiated based on ingredients and manufacturing process.
Different types are transparent, glycerin, medicated soap. Others are guest, beauty soaps, novelty, perfumed soap, black soap.
The black soap (Dudu Osun) is made from natural ingredients like aloe vera, palm kernel oil, she butter, honey. More types of soap include antibacterial soaps, laundry, dishwashing detergent, cleaners.
Different Types of Soap
  • transparent
  • glycerin
  • medicated soap
  • guest
  • beauty soaps
  • novelty
  • perfumed soap
  • black soap
  • antibacterial soaps
  • laundry soap
  • dishwashing detergent
  • cleaners
Soap Making Equipment
The equipment you need depends on the size and scope of the business. Basic tools are soap cutters, melting tanks, drying trays, soap molds.
You need measuring tools, weighing equipment, safety equipment, storage tanks. More include mixing pot, scale, soap shaper, mixers.
Measuring tools are used to get precise measurements while Immersion blender is used to mix the ingredients. It is important you wear safety gear like gloves, goggles, boots, and apron. This is because you work with some corrosive chemicals.
  • soap cutters
  • melting tanks
  • drying trays
  • soap molds
  • measuring tools
  • weighing equipment
  • safety equipment
  • storage tanks
  • mixing pot
  • scale
  • soap shaper
  • mixers
  • safety gloves
  • goggles
  • boots
  • apron
Soap Ingredients
The type of soap dictates the ingredients used in the manufacturing process. Common soap ingredients are fats, oil, dye, lye. Others are shea butter, canola, coconut oil, olive oil, palm oil. Others are different preservatives, colorants and base elements.
Develop a Soap Recipe
It is important you develop your own soap recipe. There are lots of resources to gather information on different ingredients and mixtures.
Learn through books, online courses, internship, and apprenticeship programs. Learn through vocational training center, seminar or a personal tutor.
The quality and efficacy of your product is the selling point. Invest in product development, standardization, quality control.
Soap Manufacturing Process
To make soap you need to first develop a recipe and assemble the ingredients. Make sure you wear protective gear then measure ingredients accordingly.
Mix your ingredients at same temperature and constantly check the temperature. Pour the mixture into prepared moulds and cover. Leave to set for 24-36 hours and unmold the soap. If your mold is in long bar form you can cut when soft into desired shape.
You need a manufacturing license to produce soap. The product should have a National Food & Drug Administrating number.
Register the business as a limited liability company or sole proprietorship. You need tax identification number, health insurance cover. There are also safety and environmental issues guiding the enterprise.
Sell your product in your immediate locality and use appropriate branding to differentiate your product. Offer promotions, discounts, and community based activities to introduce the product. Use word of mouth, family, friends and print medium. Make sure the price of your product is competitive.